New terms and ideas that I am being exposed to in the book Practices of Looking by Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright.

] Objective [

The ideal state of being unbiased…

] Subjective [

Something that is particular to the view of an individual, hence the opposite of objective. A subjective view is understood to be personal, specific, and imbued with the values and beliefs of a particular person.

] Empiricism [

A science inspired philosophy that assumes that things exist independent of language and other forms of representation, and can be known unambiguously as positive truths independent from any specific truth. An empirical methodologies relies on experimentation and data collection to established particular truths, and is in opposition to theories that see facts and truths as dependent on the context and language system in which they take on meaning.

] Positivist [

A philosophic position that is strongly scientific in inspiration and that assumes that meanings exist out in the world, independent of our feelings, attitudes, or beliefs about them. Positivism assumes that the factual nature of things can be established by experimentation and that facts are free of the influence of language and representational systems. It believes that only scientific knowledge is genuine knowledge and that other ways of viewing the world are suspect. For example, the assumption that photography directly gives us the truth of the worlds is a positivist assumption.

] Colonialism [

The policy of a nation by which it extends its power over another people or territory.

] Subject position [

A term used to define those ways that images, whether as films or paintings, etc., designate an ideal position for their intended spectators. For instance, it can be said that particular films offer to their viewers an ideal subject position. There is an ideal spectator of the action film, regardless of how any particular viewer might make personal meaning of the film, and the subject position of a traditional landscape painting is that of a spectator who luxuriates in the fantasy of ownership of sublime and bountiful nature. As theorized by Michel Foucault, subject position is the place that a particular discourse asks a human subject to adopt within it. For example, the discourse of education defines a limited set of subject positions that individuals can occupy in which some are authoritative figures of knowledge such as teachers and others are relegated the position of student, or recipients of that knowledge.

] Cyborg [

A term originally proposed by Manfred Clynes and Nathan Kline in 1960 to describe “self-regulating” man-machine systems” or cybernetic organisms. Since that time, the cyborg has been theorized, most famously by Donna Haraway, as a means to consider the relationship of human subjects to technology, and the subjectivity of late capitalism, biomedicine and computer technology. It is argued that those who have prosthetics or pacemakers, for instance, are actual cyborgs, and cyborgs have populated contemporary science fiction literature and film. However much of contemporary thinking about Cyborgs is a means of thinking about how all subjects of contemporary postmodern and technological societies can be understood as cyborgs because of their dependence upon an integral relationship with technologies.

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