New terms and ideas that I am being exposed to in the book Practices of Looking by Marita Sturken and Lisa Cartwright

] Objective [

The ideal state of being unbiased…

] Empiricism [

A science inspired philosophy that assumes that things exist independent of language and other forms of representation, and can be known unambiguously as positive truths independent from any specific truth. An empirical methodologies relies on experimentation and data collection to established particular truths, and is in opposition to theories that see facts and truths as dependent on the context and language system in which they take on meaning.

] Enlightment [

Movement embracing reason. It emphasized rationality and the idea of moral and social betterment through scientific progress.

] Technological determination [

A position that sees technology as the most important determining factor in social change, positing technology as somehow separate from social and cultural influence. In this view of technology, people are merely observers and facilitators of technology’s progress. Technological determinism has been largely discredited in favor of the view that technological change and advance is the result of social, economic , and cultural influences, and cannot be seen as either autonomous or outside those influences.

] Avant Garde [

Describes movements at the forefront of artistic experimentation. Avant-garde is often associated with modernism and is frequently contrasted with mainstream or traditional art that is conventionally rather than challenging.

] Aura [

A term used by German theorist Walter Benjamin to describe the quality of unique works of art that exist in only one place. According to Benjamin, the aura of such works is precisely what gives them quality of authenticity, which cannot be reproduced.

] Authenticity [

The quality of being genuine. Traditionally, referred to things which were one of a kind and original, rather than copied. In Walter Benjamin’s theories of the reproduction of images, authenticity is precisely that quality that cannot be reproduced or copied.

] Propaganda [

A term with negative connotations that indicated the imparting of political messages through mass media or art with the intent of moving people in calculated ways to precise political beliefs. In general terms, propaganda can refer to any attempt to use words and images to promote particular ideas and persuade people to believe certain concepts.

] Phenomenology [

Centers on the dimensions of subjective human experience in how we react bodily and emotionally as well as intellectually to the world around us. Phenomenology emphasizes the importance of the lived body in how we experience and make meaning of the world.

] Virtual [

Has come to indicate phenomena that seem to exist but in no tangible or physical way.

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